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124                               SHIPPING PRACTICE


From Africa, West Indies, United States of America, Atlantic

islands, and Mediterranean ports, 68 cub. ft.
In cases.   Each case weighs 80 lb., and 17 standard cases
measure I ton.


Measured and carried by the standard of 165 cub. ft. per


In bales. Unpressed, 120 cub. ft. Semi-pressed, 90 cub. ft.
From Southern Europe and North Africa.


From the colonies.
In tins, 40-45 cub. ft.


Wheat from the temperate climates.
Maize from the sub-tropical climates.

Wheat shipped from Canada (St. Lawrence), Northern Range
ports of the United States of America, Danube, and Karachi.
Shipped in bags or bulk.
Wheat in bags, 50 cub. ft.; in bulk, 45 cub. ft.
Maize in bags, 55 cub. ft.; in bulk, 48-52 cub. ft.
Barley in bags, 70-75 cub. ft.; in bulk, 60-65 cub. ft.
Oats in bags, 70 cub. ft.; in bulk, 60 cub. ft. (clipped oats).
Oats in bags, 80 cub. ft.; in bulk, 70 cub. ft. (unclipped oats).

West Africa, Madras Coast.
In bags, 65-68 cub. ft.


River Plate, South Africa, Australia, and China.

Places where large cattle ranches are in existence usually
ship hides, with the exception of Canada, where, although
ranches are abundant, few shipments of hides are made.
Similarly, where wool is shipped it is usual to find large
quantities of mutton and lamb being exported, but one
exception to this generalization is South Africa, where,
although quantities of wool are shipped, little meat is
exported, Here the sheep are bred for the production of
wool, and the meat is credited to be too tough and untasty
to secure a reasonable market.

Measurements of hides are—

Wet, 45-50 cub, ft.

Dry, 180-200 cub. ft.

Salted in barrels, 55^60 cub. ft.

African non-pressed, 86 cub. ft.

Pressed, 22 cub. ft.

Indian hides are carried on scale.